La standardisation pluricentrique de l’Occitan: Nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie PDF

In addition to those languages, there are a number of Portuguese-based creole languages and Spanish-based creole languages, for instance Papiamento. Like all Romance languages, the Iberian Romance languages descend from Vulgar Latin. Latin language spoken by soldiers and merchants throughout la standardisation pluricentrique de l’Occitan: Nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie PDF Roman Empire. The Romanization of the local Iberian population.


The diversification of Latin spoken in Iberia, with slight differences depending on location. Further development into modern Castilian, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Asturian, Leonese, Mirandese, etc. This list points to common traits of these Iberian subsets, especially when compared to the other Romance languages in general. Thus, changes such as Catalan and Portuguese vuit and oito vs. Latin U remains and is not changed to . This also affects some initial L in Catalan.

The synthetic preterite, inherited from earlier stages of Latin, remains the main past tense. Velarized L , which existed in Latin, is preserved at the end of syllables, and was later generalized to all positions in most dialects of both languages. Portuguese, official language in eight countries including Portugal and Brazil. After Spanish, Portuguese is the second most widely spoken Romance language in the world with over 250 million speakers, currently ranked seventh by number of native speakers. Galician, co-official in Galicia and also spoken in adjacent western parts of Asturias and Castile and León. Closely related to Portuguese, and to an extent Spanish. Additionally, the Asturian language, although not an official language, is recognised by the autonomous community of Asturias.

The Iberian Romance languages are a conventional group of Romance languages. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. A Brief History of the Spanish Language. The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World.

A History of the Spanish Language. Multilingualism in Spain: Sociolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects of Linguistic Minority Groups. A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula. La standardisation pluricentrique de l’occitan: nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie, coll. Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Today, Occitan is an official language in Catalonia, where a subdialect of Gascon known as Aranese is spoken in the Val d’Aran.

Unlike other Romance languages such as French or Spanish, there is no single written standard language called « Occitan », and Occitan has no official status in France, home to most of Occitania. Instead, there are competing norms for writing Occitan, some of which attempt to be pan-dialectal, whereas others are based on particular dialects. The long-term survival of Occitan is in grave doubt. While the term would have been in use orally for some time after the decline of Latin, as far as historical records show, the Italian medieval poet Dante was the first to have recorded the term lingua d’oc in writing. Other Romance languages derive their word for « yes » from the Latin sic, « thus , , etc. Limousin or Provençal, after the names of two regions lying within the modern Occitan-speaking area.

Lemosina que de negun’autra parladura, per qu’ieu vos en parlarai primeramen. Currently, linguists use the terms « Provençal » and « Limousin » strictly to refer to specific varieties within Occitania, keeping the name « Occitan » for the language as a whole. Many non-specialists, however, continue to refer to the language as Provençal, causing some confusion. L LI DEVEDARÀ NI NO L’EN DECEBRÀ nec societatem non AURÀ, si per castellum recuperare NON O FA, et si recuperare potuerit in potestate Froterio et Raimundo LO TORNARÀ, per ipsas horas quæ Froterius et Raimundus L’EN COMONRÀ. At that time, the language was understood and celebrated throughout most of educated Europe. In 1903 the four Gospels Lis Evangèli i. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John were translated into the form of Provençal spoken in Cannes and Grasse.