Germany had a difficult time administering the territory, which experienced many insurrections, especially those led by guerilla leader Jacob Morenga. As part of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty in 1890, a corridor of land taken from the northern border of Recueil Des Cours: Collected Courses Of The Hague Academy Of International Law 2003 PDF, extending as far as the Zambezi river, was added to the colony.
In 1915, during South West Africa Campaign of World War I, South Africa captured the German colony. The Mandate was supposed to become a United Nations Trust Territory when League of Nations Mandates were transferred to the United Nations following World War II. This was to the advantage of the National Party, which enjoyed strong support from the predominantly Afrikaner and ethnic German white population in the territory. An additional consequence of this was the extension of apartheid laws to the territory. In another Advisory Opinion issued in 1955, the Court further ruled that the General Assembly was not required to follow League of Nations voting procedures in determining questions concerning South West Africa.
In 1956, the Court further ruled that the Committee had the power to grant hearings to petitioners from the mandated territory. Mandate terminated and that the Republic of South Africa had no further right to administer South West Africa. In 1977, South Africa transferred control of Walvis Bay back to the Cape Province, thereby making it an exclave. The territory became the independent Republic of Namibia on 21 March 1990, although Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands were only incorporated into Namibia in 1994.