Please forward this ultimatum PDF screen to 89. Cet article est une ébauche concernant la diplomatie. Consultez la liste des tâches à accomplir en page de discussion.
La menace qui accompagne un ultimatum peut varier en fonction de la nature de la demande et des circonstances. Rechercher les pages comportant ce texte. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 12 juillet 2018 à 01:31. Extensive form representation of a two proposal ultimatum game. The ultimatum game is a game that has become a popular instrument of economic experiments. It was first described by Werner Güth, Rolf Schmittberger, and Bernd Schwarze: One player, the proposer, is endowed with a sum of money.
For ease of exposition, we will consider the simple example illustrated above, where the proposer has two options: a fair split, or an unfair split. The argument given in this section can be extended to the more general case where the proposer can choose from many different splits. There are two strategies available to the proposer: propose a fair split, or propose an unfair split. For each of these two splits, the responder can choose to accept or reject, which means that there are four strategies available to the responder: always accept, always reject, accept only a fair split, or accept only an unfair split. It always benefits the responder to accept the offer, as receiving something is better than receiving nothing. However, only the last Nash equilibrium satisfies a more restrictive equilibrium concept, subgame perfection. We can view the above game as having two subgames: the subgame where the proposer makes a fair offer, and the subgame where the proposer makes an unfair offer.